Control Flow

Control Flow primitives

  • if

  • match and enums

  • for, while and loop loops

  • return and ?

Control Flow with if

fn main() {
    if 1 == 2 { (1) (2)
        println!("unlikely");
    } else {
        println!("expected");
    }
}
1Paranthesis around the conditional are not necessary
2Blocks need brackets, no shorthand

Control Flow with match

fn main() {
    let a = 4;
    match a % 3 {
        0 => { println!("divisible by 3") }, (1)
        _ => { println!("not divisible by 3") }, (2)
    }
}
1match arm
2default arm

Control Flow with match and enums

enum Direction { (1)
    North(i32), (2)
    East(i32),
    South(i32),
    West(i32),
}

fn going_west(dir: &Direction) -> bool {
    match dir { (3)
        Direction::West(_) => true, (4)
        _ => false
    }
}
1enum can take multiple forms
2The forms are called "variants" and can carry data
3Enums are inspected by matching …​
4…​ on the structure

2 important enums

enum Option<T> {
    Some(T),
    None,
}

enum Result<T, E> {
    Ok(T),
    Err(E),
}
  • Option describes the possible absence of a value

  • Result describes that an operation might return an error instead

Using Option and Result

fn main() {
    let will_overflow: Option<u8> = 10_u8.checked_add(250);
    match will_overflow {
        Some(sum) => println!("interesting: {}", sum),
        None => eprintln!("addition overflow!"),
    }
}

Using Option and Result

use std::fs::File;

fn main() {
    let file_open: Result<File, io::Error> = File::open("Does not exist");

    match file_open {
        Ok(f)  => println!("Success!"),
        Err(e) => println!("Open failed: {:?}", e),
    }
}

Match guards

fn main() {
    let sum: Option<u8> = 5_u8.checked_add(5);

    match sum {
        Some(sum) if sum % 2 == 0 => println!("5+5 is even!"),
        _ => println!("5+5 ... isn't even?"),
    }
}
  • Match guards allow further refining of a match

Combining matches

You can use the | operator to match several values in one arm.

enum Direction {
    North(u32),
    East(u32),
    South(u32),
    West(u32),
}

fn going_south_or_west(dir: &Direction) -> bool {
    match dir {
        Direction::West(_) | Direction::South(_) => true,
        _ => false,
    }
}

Shorthand: if let conditionals

fn main() {
    let maybe_arg = std::env::args().nth(2);
    // can't know at compile time how many args are passed to our program
    if let Some(arg) = maybe_arg {
        println!("Got second command line argument: {}", arg);
    }
}
  • if let are idiomatic if only one case is of interest

loop

fn main() {
    let mut i = 0;

    loop {
        i += 1;

        if i > 100 { break }
    }
}

loop is used for (potentially) infinite loops

for

fn main() {
    let numbers = vec![1, 2, 3];
    // `for item in iterable` creates an iterator by calling `iterable.into_iter()`
    // and keeps calling `next() -> Option<Item>` on it until it receives `None`
    for num in numbers {
        println!("{}", num);
    }
}

for is used for iteration

while

fn main() {
    let mut i = 0;

    while !(i > 100) {
        i += 1;
    }

    let mut iter = vec![1,2,3].into_iter();

    while let Some(i) = iter.next() {
        println!("number: {}", i);
    }
}

while is used for conditional loops

break, continue

'outer: for i in 0..10 {
    loop {
        if i < 5 {
            continue 'outer;
        } else {
            break 'outer;
        }
    }
}

terminate current iteration or entire loop, using optional labels if not referring to innermost loop

return

fn get_number() -> u32 {
    return 5;

    8
}
  • return can be used for early returns

  • The result of the last expression of a function is always returned

?

use std::io;
use std::io::Read;

fn read_file(path: &std::path::Path) -> Result<String, io::Error> {
     let mut f = std::fs::File::open(path)?;

     let mut buffer = String::new();
     f.read_to_string(&mut buffer)?;

     Ok(buffer)
}
  • ? is "on error, early return"